Premodern Times: A User’s Manual. Introduction to the earliest languages, literatures, and cultures in France and across Europe. Topics include orality and literacy, the experience of allegory, fictionality, the modern uses of the past. Major writers include the inventor of romance, Chrétien de Troyes, Provencal troubadours and trouvères, Guillaume de Machaut, the first professional writer, Christine de Pizan and Alain Chartier. Instructor: Solterer. 3 units. One course.